Necesitamos una reflexión acerca de cómo la educación religiosa puede contribuir para lograr un desarrollo sostenido.
Simone Birkel

Eichstätt / Ecología – Greenpeace ha afirmado en una de sus últimas publicaciones en Alemania que “la protección del medio ambiente debería ser una asignatura en las escuelas”. Apoyando esta demanda, y la posibilidad de integrar la ética medioambiental en la educación religiosa, la cuestión de si sólo la educación puede lograr los cambios sociales necesarios para un estilo de vida sostenible está en el debate.

Desde la Cumbre de la Tierra en Río de Janeiro en 1992 y la adopción de la Agenda 21, donde la triada ecología, economía, y justicia social fue unificada de manera global en el concepto “desarrollo sostenible”, quedó claro que las consideraciones sobre medio ambiente no debían ser discutidas al margen de los factores económicos y sociales. Esta conclusión condujo al establecimiento del programa de Educación para un Desarrollo Sostenible o ESD.

Naciones Unidas declaró al período 2005-2014 como la década de “la Educación para el Desarrollo Sostenible”, para establecer a nivel global la integración de los principios del desarrollo sostenible en los programas nacionales de educación. En ese sentido, es difícil proporcionar temas ecológicos relevantes para ser enseñados sin conocer el contexto concreto de cada escuela.

Una Educación para el Desarrollo Sostenible, especialmente en escuelas con ideario religioso, sólo tendrá éxito y será viable si el colegio en su conjunto apoya el proyecto, y si desde todos los ámbitos los intentos para reformar los colegios son hechos siguiendo criterios de sostenibilidad. Este requisito incluye medidas de la administración del establecimiento, tanto estructurales como de energías de bajo consumo. Lo ideal sería que el proceso del nuevo modelo llevase a un debate para obtener una declaración de una misión común.

Una posible forma de proceder es introducir programas profesionales de medio ambiente orientados especialmente hacia escuelas que pongan a toda la institución en la misma perspectiva. El modelo europeo de gestión medioambiental, EMAS, ofrece una orientación fundamental. Algunas diócesis en Europa están apoyando a sus escuelas para introducir estas medidas de gestión en medio ambiente.

Necesitamos una reflexión acerca de cómo la educación religiosa puede contribuir para lograr un desarrollo sostenido. La pedagogía cristiana, así como las escuelas en general, no puede dedicarse simplemente a enseñar la “sostenibilidad”. Sin embargo, las escuelas y la enseñanza religiosa en general podrían verse sobrecargadas con una tarea como ésa. La misión, por lo tanto, no puede ser solucionada exclusivamente en la escuela; se necesita crear un marco social, económico y político apropiado. Como mucho, las instituciones educativas pueden apoyar el proceso, pero no ser el motor decisivo de un desarrollo sostenible generalizado.

El contenido del debate sobre sostenibilidad era conocido antes de la cumbre de Río de 1992, y también en los programas de educación religiosa. En la cuarta Asamblea del Concilio Mundial de las Iglesias en Vancouver en 1983, fue adoptada una recomendación que integraría a todas las iglesias nacionales en un proceso conciliar para comprometerse mutuamente por la justicia, la paz y la integridad de la creación.

Lo esencial de este proceso consiste en la conjunción de temas ecológicos, económicos y de justicia social, así como de múltiples iniciativas que ya han sido desarrolladas, como las tiendas de comercio justo, instituciones de educación medioambiental o monasterios que han aplicado técnicas sostenibles en prácticas agrícolas, etc.

Animados por el movimiento conciliar de Justicia, Paz e Integridad de la Creación, el tema de la sostenibilidad ha encontrado la manera de ser significativo en la enseñanza religiosa durante los últimos 30 años. Redescubrir y renovar esos temas con discusiones apropiadas y actividades atrayentes será la tarea de maestros y maestras, y no sólo en los colegios cristianos.

_________

Simone Birkel. Teóloga. Trabaja en la Academia de Educación Social en Eichstätt, Alemania. Profesora de Educación y Desarrollo Sostenible en la U. Católica Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Alemania. Su investigación se centra en la educación religiosa en niños y en religión y educación ecológica en el contexto de desarrollo sostenible. Publicado en ecojesuit.com


 
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