Del 28 de noviembre al 10 de diciembre se celebró en Durban, Sudáfrica, la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Cambio Climático. Entrevista a Luca Fiorani, responsable de EcoOne —red internacional de profesionales en el campo del medio ambiente y de la naturaleza—.
Equipo Focolare

Buenos Aires / Ecología – Dos semanas de conferencia de la ONU sobre el cambio climático. ¿Cuál es el balance?

En Durban se alcanzó a última hora un acuerdo modesto: la conferencia duró un día más de lo esperado y no produjo un nuevo convenio vinculante, posponiendo su redacción para el año 2015 y su entrada en vigor sólo para el 2020. Este resultado confirma la tendencia general de las negociaciones internacionales sobre el clima: un punto muerto. Estamos asistiendo, en una escala global, a una escena típica de una pelea entre hermanos: todos se preguntan quién debe dar el primer paso para resolverla.

El Protocolo de Kyoto, para reducir los gases de efecto invernadero, que se extendió hasta el año 2015, es insuficiente, no sólo porque ofrece objetivos limitados, sino porque los países que son altos productores de contaminantes no adhieren a él. Algunos grandes contaminadores “tradicionales” quisieran que fueran los llamados países emergentes los que redujeran las emisiones contaminantes.

A pesar de todo sigo siendo optimista: creo que la humanidad va a encontrar una solución. Algunos países ya han comprendido la importancia estratégica de la energía renovable. En este contexto, la Unión Europea se sitúa de manera positiva, con el plan “20 20 20″ (para el año 2020 reducción de gases de efecto invernadero del 20%, del consumo de energía en un 20% y del 20% de nuestras necesidades energéticas a través del uso de energías renovables).

¿Existe el riesgo de que estas decisiones afecten a los países en desarrollo?

El riesgo existe. De hecho, algunos, con razón, apoyan la reducción de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero, pero también poniéndose de parte de los países emergentes, donde la mayoría de la población sigue sin electricidad y agua. Se debería apoyar el desarrollo de la energía limpia y nos preguntamos: ¿por qué los países ricos no ceden sus patentes? ¿Por qué la exportación de industrias contaminantes? Entre los que apoyan esta posición está también la Iglesia Católica.

En Durban estuvieron presentes negociadores de 190 países que están en busca de importantes acuerdos entre los Estados. Y en el nivel micro, ¿hay algo que podamos hacer?

Sí, por supuesto. El compromiso a nivel personal, las opciones de consumo y de voto, un estilo más sobrio de vida, son todas acciones importantes. Además EcoOne intenta elaborar una reflexión sobre una nueva relación entre la persona y la naturaleza…

¿Puede explicar mejor? ¿Cuáles son las propuestas de EcoOne para un estilo de vida más sustentable?

La propuesta de EcoOne tiene sus raíces en el pensamiento de Chiara Lubich. ¿Qué es lo que Chiara nos ha enseñado? No tanto las más modernas técnicas para ahorrar energía, sino a poseer una mirada en la naturaleza que es nueva. Ella nos hizo apreciar la presencia de Dios debajo de las cosas. Ella nos hizo comprender la fraternidad universal, lo cual significa la fraternidad con otros pueblos en nuestra generación y entre las generaciones, para responder a las preguntas “¿Qué planeta le dejaremos a nuestros hijos? ¿Qué aire respiraremos?”.

En esta reflexión sobre la relación renovada entre el hombre y la naturaleza, encontramos la superación de un antropocentrismo excesivo, es decir la del hombre como dominador absoluto que destruye la naturaleza con el fin de ganar dinero, sino también la de considerar la naturaleza como centro de todo, hasta el punto de considerar a la persona humana como una “perturbación” del cosmos.

Nosotros creemos que la respuesta se encuentra más bien en el don de sí mismo, en la persona que vive el don de sí mismo con sus semejantes y con la naturaleza, de la que se siente no el dueño sino el administrador y el custodio, porque Dios se la ha confiado.
_________
Equipo Focolare. Luca Fiorani es investigador y coordinador internacional de EcoOne, iniciativa cultural que trabaja en el campo de la ciencia del medio ambiente. Publicado en revista Ciudad Nueva, www.ciudadnueva.org.ar


 
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