Los últimos treinta años se han caracterizado, por un lado, por una gestión de ruinas e inercias y, por el otro, por la emergencia de nuevas luchas contra la dominación, con otros actores y lenguajes que las izquierdas no pudieron entender.
Boaventura de Sousa Santos

Nicaragua / Política – No pongo en duda la existencia de un futuro para las izquierdas, pero su futuro no será una continuación lineal de su pasado. Definir aquello que las izquierdas tienen en común equivale a responder a la pregunta: ¿Qué es la izquierda?
 
La izquierda es un conjunto de posiciones políticas que comparten el ideal de que todos los seres humanos tienen el mismo valor y constituyen el valor supremo. Este ideal es puesto en duda siempre que hay relaciones sociales de poder desigual, es decir, de dominación. En este caso, algunos individuos o grupos satisfacen algunas de sus necesidades transformando a otros individuos o grupos en medios para sus fines. El capitalismo no es la única fuente de dominación, aunque es una fuente importante.
 
Las diferentes formas de entender este ideal han provocado varias divisiones. Las principales han surgido de respuestas opuestas a las preguntas siguientes. ¿Puede el capitalismo ser reformado con el fin de mejorar la suerte de los dominados o esto sólo es posible más allá del capitalismo? ¿La lucha social debe ser conducida por una clase —la clase obrera— o por diferentes clases o grupos sociales? ¿La lucha debe llevarse a cabo dentro de las instituciones democráticas o fuera de ellas? ¿El Estado, en sí mismo, es una relación de dominación o puede ser movilizado para combatir las relaciones de dominación?
 
LAS IZQUIERDAS DOMINARON EL SIGLO XX
 
Las respuestas opuestas a estas preguntas estuvieron en el origen de violentas divisiones. En nombre de la izquierda se cometieron atrocidades contra la izquierda. Pero, en su conjunto, las izquierdas dominaron el siglo XX, a pesar del nazismo, el fascismo y el colonialismo, el mundo se volvió más libre e igual gracias a ellas. Este corto siglo de todas las izquierdas terminó con la caída del Muro de Berlín. Los últimos treinta años se han caracterizado, por un lado, por una gestión de ruinas e inercias y, por el otro, por la emergencia de nuevas luchas contra la dominación, con otros actores y lenguajes que las izquierdas no pudieron entender. Mientras tanto, libre de las izquierdas, el capitalismo volvió a mostrar su vocación antisocial. Vuelve a ser urgente reconstruir las izquierdas para evitar la barbarie. ¿Cómo recomenzar? Con la aceptación de las siguientes ideas:
 
1) El mundo se ha diversificado y la diversidad se ha instalado dentro de cada país. La comprensión del mundo es mucho más amplia que la comprensión occidental del mundo. No hay internacionalismo sin interculturalismo.
 
2) El capitalismo concibe la democracia como un instrumento de acumulación. Si es necesario, la lleva a la irrelevancia, y si encontrara otro instrumento más eficiente prescindiría de ella. Es el caso de China. La defensa de la democracia de alta intensidad es la gran bandera de las izquierdas.
 
3) El capitalismo es amoral y no entiende el concepto de dignidad humana. Defender la dignidad humana es una lucha contra el capitalismo y nunca con el capitalismo. En el capitalismo hasta las limosnas sólo existen como relaciones públicas.
 
4) La experiencia del mundo muestra que hay muchas realidades no capitalistas, guiadas por la reciprocidad y el cooperativismo, a la espera de ser valoradas como el futuro dentro del presente.
 
5) El siglo pasado reveló que la relación de los humanos con la naturaleza es una relación de dominación contra la que hay que luchar. El crecimiento económico no es infinito.
 
6) La propiedad privada sólo es un bien social si es una entre varias formas de propiedad y todas están protegidas. Hay bienes comunes de la humanidad, como el agua y el aire.
 
7) El corto siglo de las izquierdas fue suficiente para crear un espíritu igualitario entre los seres humanos, que se distingue en todas las encuestas. Ése es un patrimonio de las izquierdas que ellas mismas están dilapidando.
 
8) El capitalismo necesita de otras formas de dominación para florecer. Necesita del racismo, del sexismo y de la guerra. Todas estas formas deben ser combatidas.
 
9) El Estado es un animal extraño, mitad ángel, mitad monstruo, pero sin él muchos otros monstruos andarían sueltos e insaciables en busca de ángeles indefensos. Mejor Estado siempre. Menos Estado nunca.
___________
Boaventura de Sousa Santos. Sociólogo y académico. Publicado en revista Envío, www.envio.org.ni

 
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