La riqueza, la belleza y la profundidad de la cosmovisión andina frente a la muerte se encuentra en plena sintonía con el mensaje cristiano.
Soni Vargas

La Paz / Cultura – En la cosmovisión andina el tiempo no es lineal, es decir, no concibe un comienzo y un final sino la convivencia con el pasado y el futuro que se da en el presente, entre lo que pasó y lo que vendrá. Este movimiento circular y continuo va regenerándose y complementándose con la vida diaria del hombre y las estaciones del año.
 
En el inicio era la relación. Ésta es la verdadera substancia andina, que se manifiesta por ejemplo en la estructura de su idioma, en la ética, en la simbología, en los ritos y hasta en la combinación de los colores en los tejidos. En efecto, todo el cosmos vive y es animado: los cuerpos celestes, los cerros, la pachamama, los fenómenos meteorológicos, todo tiene alma; por lo tanto, todo tiene vida.
 
¿Cuál es entonces la visión andina de la muerte? Nada muere o termina con fatalidad sino que es un continuo renacer, es caminar en distintos ciclos, es estar en uno y en múltiples lugares. Se plantea en términos de contradicción armónica porque la muerte es concebida como la continuación de la vida bajo la forma de “pasaje-viaje”, que al cerrar el ciclo volverá a la vida real entre los vivos. Cada ciclo siempre es un nuevo comienzo.
 
Es fundamental comprender el significado del espíritu o alma llamado ajayu, que encierra un doble principio: inmanente y trascendente. Es inmanente porque al hombre que no tiene creatividad, invención, juicio, humor, decisión, voluntad se lo define como “sin ajayu”, y es trascendente porque cuando el ajayu se separa del cuerpo, se presenta el “pasaje-viaje”, es decir, la muerte.
 
“Se fue” es la expresión utilizada; da a entender que la muerte no es el final de todo. Tampoco es el gozo del cielo o el sufrimiento del castigo, sino que es el fin de un ciclo natural de vida y el inicio de otro ciclo vital más elevado, donde prosigue la cotidianeidad. Tanto es así que el hecho de morir no rompe los vínculos con la comunidad: el difunto sigue siendo comunero, aunque está en una nueva situación, en una nueva realidad.
 
RITOS Y SIMBOLOGÍA
 
Los rituales mortuorios en el mundo andino son muy ricos en simbolismos y muy complejos en su realización. No hay negación ni ocultamiento del hecho de la muerte: es fuente de vida, otra vida, otro estatus. En este contexto el rito prepara un tiempo de diálogo y consenso recíproco. La reciprocidad del “ser comunitario”, entendido como complementario y dual, es un proceso de equilibrio entre las fuerzas opuestas: dar al otro y tomar del otro, aceptar y devolver. Por esto el ritual es el espacio sagrado del encuentro con los difuntos, entrega y recibimiento, fiesta sagrada que da origen al establecimiento del equilibrio y la complementariedad.
 
El hombre andino se constituye en un ser ritual que busca el bien y la armonía cósmica. Los ritos relacionados con la fertilidad del suelo, los animales y el hombre, por ejemplo, han sobrevivido a la superposición de las festividades cristianas (el 1 de noviembre es la fiesta de “Todosantos”: una suerte de sincretismo católico-andino en la que se evoca en complementariedad opositora la llegada de la nueva vida, y la despedida de los muertos junto con el invierno y la esterilidad del suelo). El pasaje-viaje (muerte) tiene varias fases y en cada una se preparan objetos necesarios para este tránsito: alimentos o abrigos contra el frío y otras adversidades. Hay desde una expresión ritualizada de la pena hasta un fuerte apoyo de la comunidad hacia los deudos. Comparten tiempo, música, comida y tragos para expresar el dolor en todas sus facetas y sentir una referencia de grupo.
 
Al estar ritualizados los momentos del duelo (plegarias, danzas, despedida, sepultura) la pena se canaliza de un modo personal y comunitario. Cuando concluye, suele expresarse la satisfacción y la tranquilidad con la frase “Hemos cumplido”.
 
MORIR CON DIGNIDAD
 
Si bien en la cultura occidental la muerte es hoy un tabú, el interés está permeado por un gran desafío: morir con dignidad. ¿Pero qué se entiende por este concepto? El hombre, norma de sí mismo, puede exigir no sólo una vida plena y autónoma sino también cómo morir. Este proceso aparece en la encíclica Evangelium Vitae, de Juan Pablo II, como la “fuerte tentación de la eutanasia”, es decir, adueñarse de la muerte procurándola de modo anticipado, “con el fin de eliminar el dolor”. Por el contrario, anticipar el pasaje-viaje en la cultura andina sería inconcebible pues no hay atajos en su cosmovisión circular: cada ciclo es un nuevo comienzo. Y así también debe entenderse la comprensión cristiana.
 
El teólogo alemán Karl Rahner afirma que el hombre termina su carácter de ser itinerante con la muerte, frase que expresa la idea del homo viator que transita por el mundo de paso hacia una vida imperecedera en comunión con Dios. En efecto, desde la perspectiva de la Evangelium Vitae, ayudar a morir dignamente no es otra cosa que respetar la dignidad de la persona que se encuentra en el final de su viaje, dando lugar a todos los cuidados paliativos. Considera además que estamos inmersos en una crisis antropológica profunda y lamenta que el predominio de una visión materialista y utilitarista del mundo haya concebido una pobre valoración de la vida humana: la existencia carece ya de sentido por su inutilidad y por estar sumergida en el dolor. Esto explica la aceptación en muchas sociedades de acciones contra la vida cuando se encuentra en estado terminal: “una cultura contraria a la solidaridad, que en muchos casos se configura como verdadera cultura de la muerte”.
 
La riqueza, la belleza y la profundidad de la cosmovisión andina frente a la muerte se encuentra en plena sintonía con el mensaje cristiano: somos hombres y mujeres “en viaje” y la muerte no es el final del camino: es el inicio de un nuevo ciclo, de una nueva vida.
__________
Soni Vargas. Artículo publicado en revista Ciudad Nueva, www.ciudadnueva.org.ar

 
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