¿Los historiadores han descristianizado el arte sacro? ¿Adónde están los historiadores del arte en esta discusión? Los expertos aparecen silentes ante preguntas a las cuales su educación les permite responder.
Elizabeth Lev

Roma / Cultura – En mi calidad de historiadora del arte, encuentro extraño que algunas personas estén más inclinadas a creer que Leonardo da Vinci era miembro de alguna secta secreta en vez de un artista cristiano. O que Miguel Ángel tenía más fe en la Kabala que en su catolicismo. O que Caravaggio encontraba más inspiración en su sexualidad que en los temas cristianos de la salvación. Sin embargo, estas y otras teorías tramadas por autores que no tienen conocimientos de historia del arte han convencido a millones de personas que el objetivo del arte de los espacios sagrados era el de proclamar mensajes seculares anacrónicos.

¿Adónde están los historiadores del arte en esta discusión? Los expertos aparecen silentes ante preguntas a las cuales su educación les permite responder. ¿Qué los amordaza: indiferencia o complicidad? ¿O acaso hay un defecto genético presente al momento del nacimiento de esta fascinante área del conocimiento lo que aún debilita esta disciplina?
 
EMPEZÓ CON VASARI
 
La historia del arte occidental proclama provenir de Giorgio Vasari, cuyo libro Vidas de los más eminentes pintores, escultores y arquitectos, publicado en 1550, presentó una apasionante de biografías de artistas italianos. En Vidas, identificó tres períodos históricos, el último de los cuales, contemporáneo del propio Vasari, corresponde a la Edad de Oro de comienzos del siglo XVI. En su doble condición de pintor y florentino, Vasari relató estas vidas en un estilo literario heroico, pero con especial cuidado en elevar el status del artista como también el de Florencia.
 
Sensible a las grandes tendencias y las similitudes estilísticas, Vasari escribió para glorificar su propia época, su país y su profesión. Pero Vasari veía más profundamente en los componentes que se encontraban en una buena obra de arte que la mayoría de sus sucesores contemporáneos —y esto incluye su espiritualidad—. A Vasari le fascinaba el arte de la antigüedad y amaba el genio humano de Miguel Ángel, pero sus historias jamás desconocieron el evidente rol que tuvo la fe en el arte.
 
En su Vida de Fra Angélico, por ejemplo, Vasari destaca que “un talento tan extraordinario y tan supremo como el de Fra Giovanni no podría ni debiera recaer sino en un hombre de gran santidad… ya que se nota que cuando dichos trabajos son ejecutados por personas que tienen poca estima por la religión, a menudo despiertan apetitos malignos y deseos licenciosos en las mentes de los hombres, de donde proviene lo maligno de sus trabajos, con alabanzas para el arte y la habilidad que estos muestran”.
 
Vasari consideraba a Miguel Ángel, a quien conocía muy bien, como la personificación de estas cualidades. Aplaudió a Miguel Ángel no sólo como un genio en la pintura, la escultura y la arquitectura, pero también como una persona dotada “de verdadera filosofía moral y un dulce espíritu poético…” Escasos son los halagos a Miguel Ángel en estos términos en la historia moderna del arte. Según Vasari, Miguel Ángel “se deleitaba mucho con las sagradas escrituras, como el buen cristiano que era… Con certeza fue traído al mundo para ser un ejemplo para los hombres de arte, para que aprendieran de su vida y de su trabajo”.
 
La visión del arte de Vasari dominó el siglo XVII, época en la cual artistas-biógrafos y unos pocos amantes de las artes escribían ya fueran tratados prácticos sobre la producción artística, o apuntes biográficos que aceptaban un ideal de belleza.
 
UN GIRO HACIA LO PAGANO
 
En el siglo XVIII la historia del arte empezó a ahondar en la antigüedad. El historiador alemán Johann Joachim Winckelmann, en su Historia del arte en la antigüedad, propuso un enfoque formal y filológico del arte, estableciendo las bases de la historia del arte como la conocemos hoy. Dedicado al recién ilustrado y por lo tanto accesible arte de la Grecia antigua, los estudios de Winckelmann exaltaron el arte de la Grecia clásica a la vez que restó importancia a los logros de Roma y otras civilizaciones. Winckelmann se apropió del esquema tripartito de Vasari, pero lo aplicó a una nueva tesis sobre surgimiento, auge y caída, desde la perspectiva del arte antiguo. Hablando sobre el Apolo Belvedere de los Museos Vaticanos como la más alta forma de arte del arte antiguo, Winckelmann escribió: “Ni venas ni tendones mueven o temperan su cuerpo, sino que un espíritu celestial…”. Al igual que Vasari, Winckelmann continuó en la senda de la trascendencia del arte.
 
El enfoque de Winckelmann ofreció una mirada persuasiva para el estudio del arte. Grandes obras podían elevar el espíritu humano, pero esta espiritualidad podía ser analizada en el marco de un tema pagano, desprovisto de doctrina religiosa. El cambio más importante se produciría cuando los historiadores del arte post-ilustración tuvieron que enfrentar la trascendencia en un entorno cristiano.
 
La conversión de Winckelmann al catolicismo en 1750 tuvo una motivación profesional. Dado su deseo de trabajar en Roma y tener acceso a las colecciones papales, lo profesional triunfó sobre las convicciones; pero les aseguró a sus colegas protestantes que la conversión era solamente superficial, y se fue a aprovechar sus nuevas conexiones en la corte papal. No pasó mucho los historiadores del arte empezaron a adjudicar ese tipo de oportunismo de manera retroactiva a los artistas del Renacimiento. La decisión de Winckelmann de subordinar sus sentimientos protestantes para tener acceso a recursos católicos se convirtió en un patrón para el entendimiento de los historiadores del arte sobre el arte cristiano.
 
El historiador alemán sembró una segunda semilla que haría crecer la historia del arte como la hierba. Bajo la sugerencia que el gran arte surge cuando las personas son libres, exaltó lo que imaginó era la sociedad de las repúblicas griegas. Un siglo más tarde, ese llamado libertario se extendería más allá del ámbito de la política; el arte reclamaría liberarse de la fe, la representación, la técnica del oficio y responsabilidad. “El arte debe ser libre”, el mantra de nuestros días que justifica la profanación de lo sagrado y la pornografía encubierta, es un desafortunado pero lógico producto de la teoría de Winckelmann.
 
NEGANDO LO SAGRADO
 
La era moderna de la historia del arte del Renacimiento se inició con Jacob Burckhardt (1818-1897). Hijo de un ministro calvinista suizo, Burckhardt estudiaba teología en la Universidad de Basel cuando perdió la fe. Después de recibir su título en 1839, volcó su atención a la historia.
 
Tal como Winckelmann estaba fascinado con la Grecia Antigua, Burckhardt amaba el Renacimiento italiano. También, al igual que Winckelmann, Burckhardt proyectó sus propias ideas en su ciencia. Formuló diversas teorías acerca de la época que siguió a la separación del arte religioso de su contenido sacro. Según su punto de vista, el arte renacentista y las prácticas y enseñanzas de la Iglesia no podían coexistir.
 
Burckhardt promovió la popularización del arte mediante el nuevo medio que fue la fotografía y escribió una guía de viaje, El Guía (o Cicerone), para ayudar a los viajeros a entender el arte de Italia. “En las primeras décadas del siglo XV —escribió Burckhardt—, la pintura estaba imbuida de un nuevo espíritu: a pesar de continuar ligada a la iglesia, empezó a desarrollarse en torno a principios que no guardan ninguna relación con los deberes religiosos”.
 
Burckhardt adoptó un tono cínico, diciendo que para que el arte sacro fuese exitoso, “su contenido religioso debe tener dominio absoluto. Y la razón es evidente; dicho contenido es de carácter básicamente negativo y consiste en obviar todo lo que se refiere al mundo profano. Por otro lado, si esto es introducido en el arte con conocimiento y como un principio —tal como de hecho ocurrió en el siglo XV—, la imagen pierde su carácter religioso”.
 
Burckhardt veía los grandes logros del Renacimiento como el resultado de la negación del contenido sacro. Presentó una perspectiva de la forma altamente subjetiva y la despojó de cualquiera dimensión trascendental del arte al anclarla firmemente en lo meramente transitorio. Lo temporal se convirtió en la piedra angular de su ciencia. Tal como le escribió a un colega en 1845: “Los pietistas trataron de detenerme: habrían preferido un profesor más edificante y no este hijo del mundo. De modo que ahora lo tendrán lo más mundano posible… Los pelos de la cabeza se le van a parar como plumas”.
 
Desafortunadamente, los católicos no se levantaron para defender su cultura. Después del período de la Ilustración los católicos se habían vuelto sospechosos del arte de Miguel Ángel y Rafael, creyendo que había sido uno de los factores que había propiciado la Reforma.
 
ARTE SIN CRISTIANISMO
 
Algunas de las debilidades de Burckhardt fueron apuntaladas por su alumno y sucesor Heinrich Wofflin, el que promovió un análisis formal clínico, pero dejó el arte desprovisto de contenido. A partir de estos altamente subjetivos inicios, las cabezas de la historia del arte se multiplicaron como la Hidra, engulléndose a las pocas valientes almas que se les oponían. Unos pocos historiadores trataron de atraer la atención a las funciones y significados religiosos, pero sus voces fueron ahogadas por otros que habían adoptado el nuevo punto de referencia de Sigmund Freud para la reflexión sobre historia del arte: el yo. Los estados de ánimo del artista, sus conflictos y complejos se convirtieron en el centro de la interpretación. A comienzos del siglo XX se asumía que el artista del Renacimiento pasaba su tiempo mirando hacia adentro, no hacia arriba.
 
Incluso el pionero de la historia del arte interdisciplinaria, Aby Warburg (1866-1929), agotó los recursos sicológicos de la imaginería renacentista, husmeando en lo oculto, la astrología y libros contables, al tiempo que ignoraba las fuentes más obvias de tradición y espiritualidad cristianas.
 
La tendencia continúa hoy en día. Al igual que el joven sacerdote de Flannery O’Connor que proclamaba la “iglesia de la verdad sin Cristo crucificado”, un heterogéneo desfile de historiadores del arte marxistas, feministas y deconstruccionistas nos presenta el arte de la iglesia del Renacimiento sin el cristianismo que lo inspiró y lo bañó.
____________
Elizabeth Lev. Ella vive en Roma y es profesora de arte y arquitectura Cristianas en el campus italiano de la Universidad Duquesne y del programa de estudios católicos de la Universidad Santo Tomás. Ha escrito para Inside the Vatican y First Things. Publicado en revista America, www.americamagazine.org

 
Revista Mirada Global © Copyright 2009
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